The biggest country in the world

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The biggest country in the world
 
 It took many years for Russia to grow and develop as a country. Chronicle the history of Early Russia began in the year 862. That year Rurik became the first Russian prince having merged Novgorod and Kiev. In 988 Prince Vladimir, the Red Sun, baptised Russia. After the adoption of Christianity churches and monasteries sprang up in the country. The beautiful cathedrals and churches of Early Russia still stand in their glory. From the X-th to the XII-th centuries Russia was a progressive Christian state. In the XV-th century, the Romanov Dynasty continued this expansion. Eventually, under the rule of Peter the first, the conquered land mass was extended to the Baltic Sea and the whole territory was renamed the Russian Empire. More territories were conquered during the XIX-th century and then later, in 1917, the imperial household was overthrown. Communism took a hold of the country. In December 1991, the USSR was splintered into fifteen independent republics and it has since struggled to build a good democratic political system. Location and geographical position The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one-seventh of the earth’s surface. It’s total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans : the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Arctic. Russia borders with many country. They are : Korea, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Norway, Finland, the Baltic states, Belorussia and the Ukraine. It also has a sea border with the USA. The geographical coordinates for Russia are 60 00 N, 100 00 E. The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga-River in Europe and the Ob-River, the Yenisei-River and the Lena-River in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal. Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest water in the world. As Russia occupies vast territories there are various climatic zones in the country. Continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers prevails on the territory of Russia. The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources. It has the deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others. Natural Resources Russia is rich in mineral deposits such as coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as iron ore, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminium, and tin. Natural resources determine the development of the Russian economy. Russia’s heavy industries produce much of the nation’s steel and most of its heavy machinery. People Russia is densely populated, but its population is unequally distributed. People prefer to live in the European part of the country. Siberia is thinly inhabited. There are more than sixty nationalities and ethnic groups in Russia. Russia is an urban country - the majority of the Russian citizens live in cities. The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people. The European part of the country is densely populated, and the most population live in cities and towns and their outskirts. 82% of the population are Russians. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. Communications Facilities for Telephones, cellular phones, radio and television stations have been firmly established in the country for some time now. The internet is also readily available and is used by a large portion of the countries inhabitants. Places of interest There are many places of interest in Russia. There are a lot of historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres in the Moscow. The Historical Museum, the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the State Tretyakov Gallery are known all over the world. The Bolshoy, Mali and Art theatres are famous too. The Kremlin - the oldest historical and architectural centre - is the heart of Moscow. St. Petersburg is the second Russia’s largest city. St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities of Europe, has played an important role in Russian history. St. Petersburg is proud of its rich architecture, that includes the cathedral of the Peter-Paul Fortress, the Summer Palace, the Winter Palace, the Smolny Convent, the Kazan and St. Isaac’s cathedrals, the Smolny Institute, the new Admiralty, and the Senate. There are many important educational and scientific research centres in St. Petersburg. Among these are: the University of Saint Petersburg, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Institute of Mines, and the Military Medical Academy.St. Petersburg is a city of culture. There are a lot of theatres and concert halls there. And, of course, St-Petersburg is proud about Peterhof, Pavlovsk and Pushkin. The “Golden Ring” is a very popular tourist route. It includes towns and villages in the north-eastern part of the former State of Muscovy. It is rich with historical and architectural monuments. Among the most notable towns of the “Golden Ring” route are Pereslavl-Zalessky, the birthplace of the Russian Prince Alexander Nevsky; Rostov Veliky, the finest and largest town of Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky’s principality; Borisoglebsky, the Fortress-Monastery, founded for the protection of the travellers; Uglich, the tragic stage of Tsarevich Dmitry death; Kostroma, known for its elaborate churches and cathedrals; Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Suzdal, and others. All these towns played a very important role by making of the state of Russia. The history of Vladimir dates back to the year 1108 when it was founded by Vladimir Monomakh. Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky moved his capital from Kiev to Vladimir in 1157. In 1160 he invited craftsmen to build the Assumption Cathedral. By the 15-th century the city declined. Now Vladimir is famous for its architecture of early Russia. Suzdal was the capital of Yury Dolgoruky’s Rostov-Suzdal Principality. After the fall of Kiev Suzdal became a religious, political and economic centre of medieval Russia. Many of its monasteries and convents are associated with the banished princes and nobility. Numerous churches and monasteries were built in Suzdal during the reign of Andrew Bogolyubsky. In the 13-th and 14-th centuries Suzdal-Vladimir principality disintegrated. I am sure that everything that our foreign guests will see in Russia they will never be able to forget.  
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